Vaccination against Lawsonia intracellularis decreases shedding of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in co-infected pigs and alters the gut microbiome

February 12, 2018
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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium continues to be a major cause of foodborne illness worldwide and pork can serve as a source of infection. Co-infection of S. enterica with Lawsonia intracellularis, a common intestinal pathogen of swine, has been found as risk factor for increased S. enterica shedding. The objective of this study was to investigate…

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Longitudinal study of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in a cohort of swine veterinarians in the United States

October 19, 2017
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BACKGROUND: People working with pigs are at elevated risk of harboring methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in their nose, which is attributable to occupational exposure to animals harboring livestock adapted S. aureus. To obtain insight into the biological nature of occupationally related nasal culture positivity, we conducted a longitudinal study of 66 swine veterinarians in…

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Noninvasive tuberculosis screening in free-living primate populations in Gombe National Park, Tanzania

September 29, 2015
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Recent advances in noninvasive detection methods for mycobacterial infection in primates create new opportunities for exploring the epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-living species. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and baboons (Papio anubis) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, were screened for infection with pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex using Fecal IS6110 PCR; none was positive. This…

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Noninvasive test for tuberculosis detection among primates

September 17, 2015
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Traditional testing methods have limited epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis among free-living primates. PCR amplification of insertion element IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from fecal samples was evaluated as a noninvasive screening test for tuberculosis in primates. Active tuberculosis was detected among inoculated macaques and naturally exposed chimpanzees, demonstrating the utility of this test.

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The risk of tuberculosis transmission to free-ranging great apes

September 17, 2014
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Pathogen exchange between humans and primates has been facilitated by anthropogenic disturbances, such as changing land use patterns, habitat destruction, and poaching, which decrease population sizes and increase levels of primate-human interaction. As a result, human and domestic animal diseases have become a recognized threat to endangered primate populations. Tuberculosis is a major global human…

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Risk factors for exposure to influenza A viruses, including subtype H5 viruses, in Thai free-grazing ducks

September 17, 2014
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Free-grazing ducks (FGD) have been associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks and may be a viral reservoir. In July-August 2010, we assessed influenza exposure of Thai FGD and risk factors thereof. Serum from 6254 ducks was analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to influenza A nucleoprotein (NP), and haemagglutinin…

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Invasive American mink: Linking pathogen risk between domestic and endangered carnivores

September 17, 2014
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Infectious diseases, in particular canine distemper virus (CDV), are an important threat to the viability of wild carnivore populations. CDV is thought to be transmitted by direct contact between individuals; therefore, the study of species interactions plays a pivotal role in understanding CDV transmission dynamics. However, CDV often appears to move between populations that are…

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Livestock density as risk factor for livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, The Netherlands

September 17, 2013
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Climate, landscape, and the risk of orbivirus exposure in cattle in Illinois and western Indiana

September 17, 2010
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Climate and environmental data were used to estimate the risk of testing positive for antibodies to bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV) in cattle in Illinois and western Indiana over three transmission seasons (2000-2002). The risks of BTV and EHDV seropositivity were positively associated with temperature during every year of the study. The…

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Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis

September 17, 2010
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The objective of the present study was to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay using SYBR Green for quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis in cell culture and pig fecal samples. Specific primers were designed and tested using the aspartate ammonia-lyase (aspA) gene as a target. Serial 10-fold dilutions of cell culture samples and several…

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Exploratory spatial data analysis of regional seroprevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in cattle from Illinois and Indiana

September 17, 2008
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OBJECTIVE: To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against the serogroup of epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDVs) and describe spatial distribution of antibodies against EHDV among cattle herds in Illinois and western Indiana. SAMPLE POPULATION: 9,414 serum samples collected from cattle in 60 herds over 3 transmission seasons. PROCEDURES: Serum samples were tested for antibodies against EHDV…

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