Syndromic surveillance of respiratory disease in free-living chimpanzees

April 15, 2019
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Disease surveillance in wildlife is rapidly expanding in scope and methodology, emphasizing the need for formal evaluations of system performance. We examined a syndromic surveillance system for respiratory disease detection in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, from 2004 to 2012, with respect to data quality, disease trends, and respiratory disease detection. Data quality was assessed by…

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Quantitative risk assessment of antimicrobial-resistant foodborne infections in humans due to recombinant bovine somatotropin usage in dairy cows

June 2, 2017
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Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a production-enhancing technology that allows the dairy industry to produce milk more efficiently. Concern has been raised that cows supplemented with rbST are at an increased risk of developing clinical mastitis, which would potentially increase the use of antimicrobial agents and increase human illnesses associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens delivered…

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What is the evidence that point sources of anthropogenic effluent increase antibiotic resistance in the environment? Protocol for a systematic review

July 18, 2016
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Herein we describe a protocol for a systematic review of the evidence on whether point sources of anthropogenic effluent are associated with an increase in antibiotic resistance in the adjacent environment. The review question was based on the Population, Exposure, Comparator, Outcome, Study Design (PECOS) framework as follows: Is the prevalence or concentration of antibiotic…

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Invasive American mink: Linking pathogen risk between domestic and endangered carnivores

September 17, 2014
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Infectious diseases, in particular canine distemper virus (CDV), are an important threat to the viability of wild carnivore populations. CDV is thought to be transmitted by direct contact between individuals; therefore, the study of species interactions plays a pivotal role in understanding CDV transmission dynamics. However, CDV often appears to move between populations that are…

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Estimation of low quantity genes: a hierarchical model for analyzing censored quantitative real-time PCR data

September 17, 2013
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Analysis of gene quantities measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) can be complicated by observations that are below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the assay. A hierarchical model estimated using MCMC methods was developed to analyze qPCR data of genes with observations that fall below the LOQ (censored observations). Simulated datasets with moderate to…

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Novel florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance gene discovered in Alaskan soil by using functional metagenomics

September 17, 2010
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Functional metagenomics was used to search for florfenicol resistance genes in libraries of cloned DNA isolated from Alaskan soil. A gene that mediated reduced susceptibility to florfenicol was identified and designated pexA. The predicted PexA protein showed a structure similar to that of efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily.

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Do microbial interactions and cultivation media decrease the accuracy of Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations?

September 17, 2009
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Cultivation methods are commonly used in Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations, and consequently, conclusions about Salmonella evolution and transmission are highly dependent on the performance characteristics of these methods. Past studies have shown that Salmonella serotypes can exhibit different growth characteristics in the same enrichment and selective media. This could lead not only to…

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Can landscape ecology untangle the complexity of antibiotic resistance?

September 17, 2006
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Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to pose a serious threat to human and animal health. Given the considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of resistance and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination and persistence, we argue that antibiotic resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. A fundamental difficulty in assessing the…

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