thumbnail of Berghaus-longitudinal-AEM-2013

Enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in environmental farm samples and processing plant carcass rinses from commercial broiler chicken flocks

September 17, 2013
Posted in

  A prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the prevalences and loads of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in farm and processing plant samples collected from 55 commercial broiler chicken flocks. Environmental samples were collected from broiler houses within 48 h before slaughter, and carcass rinses were performed on birds from the same flocks at…

Read More
thumbnail of Boyer-hierarchical-model-PLoS-2013

Estimation of low quantity genes: a hierarchical model for analyzing censored quantitative real-time PCR data

September 17, 2013
Posted in ,

Analysis of gene quantities measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) can be complicated by observations that are below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the assay. A hierarchical model estimated using MCMC methods was developed to analyze qPCR data of genes with observations that fall below the LOQ (censored observations). Simulated datasets with moderate to…

Read More
thumbnail of Davies-EID-2013

Livestock density as risk factor for livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, The Netherlands

September 17, 2013
Posted in ,
Read More
thumbnail of Cox-Singer-FPD-2012

Confusion over antibiotic resistance: ecological correlation is not evidence of causation

September 17, 2012
Posted in
Read More
thumbnail of Kim-microbial-shifts-PNAS-2012

Microbial shifts in the swine distal gut in response to the treatment with antimicrobial growth promoter, tylosin

September 17, 2012
Posted in ,

Antimicrobials have been used extensively as growth promoters (AGPs) in agricultural animal production. However, the specific mechanism of action for AGPs has not yet been determined. The work presented here was to determine and characterize the microbiome of pigs receiving one AGP, tylosin, compared with untreated pigs. We hypothesized that AGPs exerted their growth promoting…

Read More
thumbnail of Boyer-qpcr-cmy2-FPD-2012

Quantitative measurement of bla(CMY-2) in a longitudinal observational study of dairy cattle treated with ceftiofur

September 17, 2012
Posted in

There is concern that a relationship exists between antibiotic use in livestock production and the emergence, spread, and persistence of antibiotic resistance. It is important to understand the impact that therapeutic doses of antibiotics for treatment of disease have on resistance because disease treatment typically involves higher doses of antibiotic over short time spans. Absolute…

Read More
thumbnail of Hurd-QTA20121-CAST

The direct relationship between animal health and food safety outcomes

September 17, 2012
Posted in ,

The health of the animals within the food animal production system impacts many aspects of the system far removed from the animals themselves. To promote high productivity in animal agriculture, researchers need to examine nutrition, management systems, and animal care practices including the use of antibiotics and vaccines. This Commentary looks at the pressures to…

Read More
thumbnail of Mech-JWD-2012

Use of real-time PCR to detect canine parvovirus in feces of free-ranging wolves

September 17, 2012
Posted in

Using real-time PCR, we tested 15 wolf (Canis lupus) feces from the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota, USA, and 191 from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, collected during summer and 13 during winter for canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 DNA. We also tested 20 dog feces for CPV-2 DNA. The PCR assay was 100% sensitive and specific…

Read More
thumbnail of Apley-FPD-2012

Use estimates of in-feed antimicrobials in swine production in the United States

September 17, 2012
Posted in

When considering the development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, comparing gross use estimates of different antimicrobials is of little value due to differences in potencies, duration of activity, relative effect on target and commensal bacteria, and mechanisms of resistance. However, it may be valuable to understand quantities of different antimicrobials used in different ages…

Read More
thumbnail of Fernandez-plasmids-PLoS-2011

Comparative genomics of multidrug resistance-encoding IncA/C plasmids from commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli from multiple animal sources

September 17, 2011
Posted in

Incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) plasmids have received recent attention for their broad host range and ability to confer resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Due to the potential spread of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes from foodborne pathogens to human pathogens, the dissemination of these plasmids represents a public health risk. In this study, four animal-source IncA/C plasmids isolated from…

Read More
thumbnail of Kim-Vet-Micro-2011

Longitudinal investigation of the age-related bacterial diversity in the feces of commercial pigs

September 17, 2011
Posted in

The importance of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals is widely acknowledged as important. However, very little is known about composition and distribution of the microbial population in lower intestinal tracts of animals. Because most bacterial species in pig intestines have not been cultured, it has been difficult to analyze bacterial diversity by conventional…

Read More
thumbnail of Johnson-PLoS-2010

Horizontal gene transfer of a ColV plasmid has resulted in a dominant avian clonal type of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky

September 17, 2010
Posted in ,

Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests…

Read More
thumbnail of Boyer-BTV-EHD-AJTMH-2010

Climate, landscape, and the risk of orbivirus exposure in cattle in Illinois and western Indiana

September 17, 2010
Posted in

Climate and environmental data were used to estimate the risk of testing positive for antibodies to bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV) in cattle in Illinois and western Indiana over three transmission seasons (2000-2002). The risks of BTV and EHDV seropositivity were positively associated with temperature during every year of the study. The…

Read More
thumbnail of Lang-flor-res-alaska-metagen-AEM-2010

Novel florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance gene discovered in Alaskan soil by using functional metagenomics

September 17, 2010
Posted in ,

Functional metagenomics was used to search for florfenicol resistance genes in libraries of cloned DNA isolated from Alaskan soil. A gene that mediated reduced susceptibility to florfenicol was identified and designated pexA. The predicted PexA protein showed a structure similar to that of efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily.

Read More
thumbnail of wattanaphansak-qpcr-lawsonia-jvdi-2010

Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis

September 17, 2010
Posted in ,

The objective of the present study was to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay using SYBR Green for quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis in cell culture and pig fecal samples. Specific primers were designed and tested using the aspartate ammonia-lyase (aspA) gene as a target. Serial 10-fold dilutions of cell culture samples and several…

Read More